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Urinalysis devices examine urine for the purpose of medical diagnosis. Urine is initially examined for such characteristics as color, odor, and specific gravity. It is routinely tested for acidity and screened for sugar, ketone bodies, proteins and bile content. Benedict's solution is used to test for simple sugars, a high level of which is a possible indicator of diabetes mellitus. Ketone bodies, e.g., acetone and acetoacetic acid, in the urine indicate the substitution of fats for sugar in the energy cycle and are another indication of diabetes mellitus. Abnormal levels of protein may be signs of kidney disease. A high concentration of bile in the urine is a sign of liver malfunction or blockage of the bile duct. Urine is examined microscopically to determine blood count. High levels of erythrocytes or red blood cells and leukocytes, or white blood cells, may be a result of bleeding and infection, respectively, in the urinary tract. Casts, crystals and other substances, whose origins may be ascertained by determining their chemical structures, can be observed microscopically. The urine of patients with melanotic cancer will often contain melanin, a skin pigment. A diagnosis of drug addiction may be confirmed by the presence of specific chemical substances in the urine. Urinalysis is also employed to test for pregnancy. Pregnant women secrete high levels of gonadotrophic, or ovary-regulating, hormones from the placenta. A reagent containing gonadotrophic hormones is mixed with a sample of urine from the patient and gonadotrophic antigens are added to it. Failure of the antigens to clump or agglutinate is positive evidence of pregnancy.
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A Cannula is a flexible tube which when inserted into the body is used either to withdraw fluid or insert medication. Cannulae normally come with a trocar attached, which allows puncturing of the body to get into the intended space. There are however 11 different kinds of cannulae: Bias Grind, Vet Point, Lancet Point, Deflected point (Anti-Coring), Pencil Point, Closed End Consistent Wall, Welded 'Ball' End, Bullet Point, Razor Edge, Probe Point (Blunt End) and Trocar. Intravenous cannulae are the most common in hospital use. A variety of cannulae are used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery. Nasal cannula is a piece of plastic tubing which runs under the nose and is used to administer oxygen. A cannula is also used in an emergency procedure to relieve pressure and bloating in cattle due most commonly to their accidentally grazing wilted legume or legume-dominant pastures, particularly alfalfa, ladino and red and white clover