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Defibrillator is used for the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. It delivers a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart. This depolarizes a critical mass of the heart muscle, terminates the arrhythmia, and allows normal sinus rhythm to be reestablished by the body's natural pacemaker, in the sinoatrial node of the heart. Defibrillator can be external, transvenous, or implanted, depending on the type of device used.
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A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to evaluate blood flow and pressure by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off red blood cells. The Doppler effect is a change in the frequency of sound waves reflected by a moving object. A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). This test may be done as an alternative to more invasive procedures such as arteriography and venography, which involve injecting dye into the blood vessel to enhance X-ray images. A Doppler ultrasound may help diagnose many conditions, including: blood clots, incompetent valves in leg veins, which cause fluid to accumulate (venous insufficiency), heart valve defects & congenital heart disease, a blocked artery (arterial occlusion) and narrowing (stenosis) of an artery. This test also helps doctor to evaluate an injury to the arteries or to monitor arterial reconstruction and bypass grafts.
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Disinfectors can be used to clean and disinfect surgical instruments prior to packaging and sterilization. These can also be used to make non-invasive items (such as anaesthetic equipment, flexible endoscopes and human waste receptacles) free of infection risk and safe to used without additional treatment. The main objective of using disinfectors is the removal of prions of vCJD, which tolerate conventional thermal and chemical sterilization processes.