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Cervical traction is a treatment option that is based on the application of a longitudinal force to the axis of the spinal column. The spinal column are pulled in opposite directions in order to stabilize or change the position of damaged aspects of the spine. The force is usually applied to the skull through a series of weights or a fixation device and requires that the patient is either kept in bed or placed in a halo vest. There are a number of medically accepted uses for spinal traction, which include the mobilization of soft tissues or joints, decompression of pinched nerve roots and reduction of herniated intervertebral disks. Currently, the most important use of traction is for the management of cervical spine instability. Instability is defined as damage to the cervical spinal column, either through trauma or disease, resulting in a potential for shifting/malunion of fractured bones prior to healing or abnormal movement of the injured region with a likelihood of additional neurological damage. Traction is an extremely effective means of realigning a cervical spinal dislocation and providing stabilization for these types of cervical spine injury. Low weight cervical spinal traction may be beneficial in the early treatment of cervical radiculopathy caused by a disc herniation. In these cases, 7 to 10 lbs. of traction is applied for approximately one hour three times a day.
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A Cryostat is a vessel, similar in construction to a vacuum flask used to maintain cold cryogenic temperatures. Three common types of cryostat exist, the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Clinical imaging) magnet type, the MR research magnet type and a biological microtome type. Cryostats used in MRI machines are designed to hold a liquid cryogen typically liquid Helium in a liquid state with minimal boil off (evaporation). The liquid helium bath is designed to keep the superconducting magnets bobbin of superconductive wire in its superconductive state. Typically cryostats are manufactured with two vessels, one inside the other. Those used in MRI are built with an outer evacuated vessel, and an inner or, liquid helium vessel. The outer vessel serves as a thermal insulator as well as a thermal sink or heat removal device. The use of a coldhead and a cryocooler combination, removes thermal energy away from the outer vessel, thereby presenting an even cooler stage to the inner vessel maintaining the cryogenic stability of the inner vessel. In biology, cryostats are used for freezing specimens for sectioning and staining for microscopical examination, a type of Microtome. Specimens that are soft at room temperature need to be frozen before sectioning.
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Camera is a lightproof box or container fitted with a lens, which gathers incoming light and concentrates it so that it can be directed toward the film (in an optical camera) or the imaging device (in a digital camera) contained within. They are made up of the same basic parts a body (the lightproof box), a lens and a shutter to control the amount of light reaching the light-sensitive surface, a viewfinder to frame the scene, and a focusing mechanism. The 35-mm cameras, both rangefinder and reflex models, incorporate a rapid film-transport mechanism, lens interchangeability (whereby lenses of many focal lengths, such as wide-angle and telephoto, may be used with the same camera body), and a built-in light meter. Many also have an automatic exposure device whereby either the shutter speed or the aperture is regulated automatically (by means of a very sophisticated solid-state electronics system) to produce the correct exposure. Accessories include filters, which correct for deficiencies in film sensitivity, flash bulbs and flash mechanisms for supplying light and monopods & tripods for steady support.
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A Cushion is a soft bag of some ornamental material, stuffed with wool, hair, feathers, polyester staple fiber, non-woven material, or even paper torn into fragments. It may be used for sitting or kneeling upon, or to soften the hardness or angularity of a chair or couch.